In 1903, the first text on the establishment of an education system at the national level was published in China. The Zòudìng xuétáng zhāngchéng (Imperial regulation on schooling) establishes a schooling divided into primary (nine years), secondary (five years), higher and university (six to seven years) education. Because of the importance he attaches to classical books, Mandarinism was abolished in 1905.
The future of China !
In the early 1950s, the System of National Examination of Access to Higher Education (SENES) was created by the Government of the People's Republic of China, under the name of Gaokao. The new China needs cadres. Students who graduate from high-school secondary schools, workers and peasants, are recruited as students in order to appoint them in the industry or in the administration, if they obtain the minimum marks required. Until today, apart from an interruption during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), meritocracy still plays a decisive role in China. A disaster occurred with the Cultural Revolution. Mao Zedong said:
School in ChinaSchool classes are too heavy, they hurt young people in daily tension. Courses can be reduced by half. It is not appropriate for students to read everyday, they could participate in productive work and social activities. The current methods of examinations, with strange questions, surprise, that confuse, are like approaches in front of the enemy.
tradition VS modernityBlack tea eggs are traditionally sold in the street and on the markets. The words "miss (...) All the examinations had been abolished, the universities were closed. In the early 1970s, some universities were reopened, but they recruited only "student-peasant-soldier" students on the basis of a very basic examination. For example, a candidate who had been unable to complete the physical chemistry copy and had expressed his wish to enter the university was finally admitted and became a political star of the day. He was called "the hero with empty copy". A film told the story of university admission through "calloused hands" - a sign of physical and painful work - not a written exam. The university entrance examination is then abolished, despised merit and the status of intellectuals dramatically lowered: "The man who manufactures the missiles earns no more than the one who sells eggs to black tea." 2 Families, the importance given to education collapses. Parents no longer care about learning their children, students live day to day in school.
The Gaokao was re-established in 1977, but the social situation changed dramatically. First, the state has begun to implement the one-child policy. An expression perfectly reflects the reality of families: "wanting her child to become a dragon", that is, a genius. Secondly, the "key schools" (zhongdian xuexiao) or elite schools have been created and are highly sought after. The gap between good schools and ordinary schools has widened. Parents seek by all means to have their children admitted to a key school. Finally, the industrialization and commercialization of education have developed silently. In Beijing, the costs of "choosing the school" can reach 60,000 yuan, or 5,000 euros.
In today's Chinese society, the future of young people depends on their studies and university degrees. To get to a renowned university, you have to get a good result in Gaokao and to do this, you have to study in a good high school, a good college, a good primary school, even a good kindergarten. Competition begins somewhat from birth. This situation is called "teaching for examination" (ying shi jiao yu). 17Since the late 1980s, the term su zhi jiao yu has emerged in the field of education. This Chinese expression means "qualifying education" and its translation into English is "essential-qualities-oriented education". According to the Decision on Further Education Reform and the Promotion of Qualified Education of the State Council (1999), the meaning of "qualifying education" is very broad:
Qualified Education in ChinaApplying Qualified Education means fulfilling the Party's educational principles in its entirety, aiming at raising the level of the Nation's qualification, emphasizing the creativity and practical skills of students, To form the builders and successors of socialism with ideals, moral principles, culture and self-discipline, enjoying full moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetic fulfillment.
After the completion of the primary school entrance examination and the college in 1990, the admission of pupils no longer depends solely on their residence. Schools often ask for certificates of various competitions: dissertation, sports, piano, dance, calligraphy, English, etc. The winners of the Olympics are favored. According to one survey, 104 elementary school students attended 338 out-of-school courses, with 3.25 classes per student and 6.5 hours per week. A student from Nanjing had 44 certificates3! At the Maotanchang High School in Anhui Province, known as "the largest examination machine in Asia", there was practically military and centralized management: the twenty thousand pupils had no autonomy, underwent training and exercises School year round, without holidays and, with only two hours of rest per week to change clothes.
The implementation of curriculum reform aimed at achieving a reduction in the school load, but it did not achieve the expected results.
In general, teachers must play an important role in educational reforms. But educational reforms in China have often been launched from top to bottom, and teachers have had little involvement in policy-making. According to a survey carried out by the 21st Century Institute for Educational Research, 74% of teachers responded "strongly" and "strongly agreed" to the question on curriculum reform. However, those who said they were "very satisfied" with the effectiveness of the reform accounted for only 3.3%, for a total of only 21.3% of those who said they were "satisfied" or "very satisfied". On the other hand, those who answered "fair" and "unsatisfactory" were 49.3% and 21%, respectively. With regard to reducing student burden, 47% of teachers felt that the school load had increased with the new curriculum and only 8.5% of teachers thought that it had a tendency to lighten.
"Working ardently to qualifying education, prepare effectively to pass the exam", this sentence can summarize the current situation of education in China. It is the cultural heritage of Mandarinism that plays an essential role.
This tradition is confronted with the challenges of international competition, qualifications being the core of future competition. The PISA survey provided guidance on academic skills. China can not ignore these indicators, but only Shanghai has had the courage to participate in the survey. Indeed, the Shanghai municipality is the most urbanized, its most developed economy, its most advanced culture in China. In Shanghai, at the top of the results of the PISA 2012 survey, "hard work" methods play an important role. The survey leader for Shanghai reported that the average course time is 28.2 hours per week, ranked 9th among the 65 participating countries or regions. In addition, the average time spent doing homework is 13.8 hours a week, putting Shanghai ahead, with roughly double the OECD average (7.9 hours per week ). It seems that the reduction of the school load is not easy: if the Gaokao remains, the teaching for the examination should not disappear.
If this interpretation is consistent with the situation in Europe, it is not appropriate for China. Chinese culture is more open. Despite the imbalance of cultural resources, children in poor families have a chance to achieve good academic results if they have intellectual capacity and attendance.
Yearbook of Education in China (1949-1981), Beijing: Encyclopedia of China, 1984, p. 338. The proportion of peasant workers among the newly promoted in Chinese higher education institutions was 27.39 per cent in 1953 and 55.28 per cent in 1958. The peak was reached in 1965 with 71.2 per cent in 1965.4 Of course, these figures are the result of the priority policy given to peasant workers. Although this policy is no longer practiced today (statistics on students of working-peasant origin no longer exist), children of popular origin still have an opportunity to enter the university.